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Cosmos Oceans cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 97% of the Earth
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Oceans cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain 97% of the Earth’s water. If they were to suddenly dry up one day, life as we know it would change drastically. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Astronomers Found 3 'Zombie' Stars That Came Back to Life After Supern
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Astronomers Found 3 'Zombie' Stars That Came Back to Life After Supernova. Stars aren't supposed to come back to life after the death throes of the supernova stage, but astronomers have spotted three that have done just that – surviving the catastrophic explosion that usually marks the end of a star's life, and heading off through the galaxy on a new adventure. These peculiar 'zombie' stars move a lot faster than the undead humans you might be familiar with from film and TV, and astronomers think they might be a completely new class of star. Zombie stars like these are rare but not unheard of: another similar cosmic object, called LP 40-365, was spotted back in 2017. The three new zombie stars highlighted in a newly published study seem to have a lot in common with LP 40-365, including their relatively large size but relatively low mass. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Supermassive Black Holes May Have Formed Without Any Stars.Stellar-m
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Supermassive Black Holes May Have Formed Without Any Stars. Stellar-mass black holes, which are formed by stars going supernova, weigh between a few and a few dozen times the mass of the Sun. At the center of galaxies, however, there are supermassive black holes weighing millions, if not billions, of times the mass of our Sun. For a long time, astronomers believed that these supermassive black hole grew slowly but in recent years, observations have shown that these giants were already in place and massive long before the first stars formed. Researchers trying to wrap their heads around these objects' formations have considered quite a few scenarios. Now a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters combines some of those ideas, suggesting that these primordial black holes may have collapsed from a very large cloud of gas that, given the gravity and short time-scale, had no time to break apart and turn into stars. These are called direct-collapse black holes. These black holes started their lives being massive, but not supermassive, somewhere in the tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of times the mass of the Sun. These objects are born hungry and surrounded by gas and dust, their favorite meal. They start gobbling up this material at an exceptional rate, quickly growing to massive proportions. “Supermassive black holes only had a short time period where they were able to grow fast and then at some point, because of all the radiation in the universe created by other black holes and stars, their production came to a halt,” lead author Dr Shantanu Basu, from Western University, said in a statement. “That’s the direct-collapse scenario.” Смотреть полностью
Cosmos TESS satellite uncovers
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TESS satellite uncovers "first nearby super-Earth". An international team of astronomers led by Cornell's Lisa Kaltenegger has characterized the first potentially habitable world outside of our own solar system. Located about 31 light-years away, the super-Earth planet—named GJ 357 d—was discovered in early 2019 owing to NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), a mission designed to comb the heavens for exoplanets, according to their new modeling research in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This is exciting, as this is humanity's first nearby super-Earth that could harbor life—uncovered with help from TESS, our small, mighty mission with a huge reach," said Kaltenegger, associate professor of astronomy, director of Cornell's Carl Sagan Institute and a member of the TESS science team. The exoplanet is more massive than our own blue planet, and Kaltenegger said the discovery will provide insight into Earth's heavyweight planetary cousins. "With a thick atmosphere, the planet GJ 357 d could maintain liquid water on its surface like Earth, and we could pick out signs of life with telescopes that will soon be online," Смотреть полностью
Cosmos A team of astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has taken
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A team of astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has taken an important step closer to finding the birth certificate of a star that’s been around for a long time. “We have found that this is the oldest known star with a well-determined age,” said Howard Bond of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. The star could be as old as 14.5 billion years — plus or minus 0.8 billion years — which, at first glance, would make it older than the universe’s calculated age of about 13.8 billion years, an obvious dilemma. This “Methuselah star,” cataloged as HD 140283, has been known about for more than a century because of its fast motion across the sky. The high rate of motion is evidence that the star is simply a visitor to our stellar neighborhood. Its orbit carries it down through the plane of our galaxy from the ancient halo of stars that encircle the Milky Way and will eventually slingshot back to the galactic halo. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos 10 billion years ago, the Milky Way ate Gaia.The Milky Way achieved
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10 billion years ago, the Milky Way ate Gaia. The Milky Way achieved its present form about 10 billion years ago when it merged with a smaller, neighbouring galaxy, new observations and modelling show. Researchers led by astrophysicist Carme Gallar of the Universidad de La Laguna in Spain took advantage of measurements taken by the European Space Agency’s Gaia space observatory, which was launched in 2013 for the dedicated purpose of mapping the positions of stars with unprecedented accuracy. They took the new data and subjected it to the two most commonly used techniques for estimating the age of stars – comparison with existing stellar models and what is known as colour-magnitude diagram fitting. The approach was applied to Gaia measurements for the galaxy’s two outer rings of stars – known as the blue and red haloes – and what astronomers call its thick central disc. The results showed that the stars in the haloes were all more ancient than those in the disc, with those in the former category all exceeding 10 billion years old. The sharp age difference, the researchers say, confirms and, for the first time, accurately dates a titanic encounter between the progenitor of the Milky Way and a neighbouring, smaller galaxy, dubbed Gaia-Enceladus. The different colours of the two haloes are an indication of the iron content of their respective stars. Red stars contain more of it than blue ones. Colour also often indicates great age. Until now, thus, astronomers assumed that the Milky Way’s blue halo was younger than its red one. Gallar and colleagues used Gaia data to show that this is not the case. Their modelling reveals that the red and blue haloes contain stars of identical age, and that each region started and ceased star production at about the same time. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos The accurate tilt and rotation of the planets🛸
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The accurate tilt and rotation of the planets🛸
Cosmos Study raises concern for sun •Superflare•🔥☄️. Astronomers m
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Study raises concern for sun •Superflare•🔥☄️. Astronomers monitoring data from thousands of distant stars have come to an unnerving conclusion: every 2000 to 3000 years, ones just like the sun can produce superflares 100 or more times larger than anything ever recorded in human history. Such an event, if it were to occur today, would produce a blast of radiation that would destroy satellites, disrupt electronics, knock out communications, and devastate power grids worldwide. Flares are sudden releases of energy thought to be caused by releases of magnetic energy stored near starspots — the extrasolar equivalent of sunspots. Superflares are simply big versions. Conventional wisdom held that superflares are a product of young, fast-rotating stars, unlike the sun, which in middle age has seen its rotation slow to about once every 25 days. The largest flare on record is the Carrington Event, a giant flare observed by English astronomer Richard Carrington in 1859, which created northern lights that spread as far south as Hawaii and southern lights that spread as far north as Santiago, Chile – slightly farther north than the Australian city of Sydney. People in the northeastern US claimed they could read the newspaper just from the light of the aurora, and operators of the then-newfangled telegraph reported sparks leaping off their equipment, melting wires and starting fires. But by superflare standards, the Carrington Event was just a baby, Notsu said recently at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in St. Louis, Missouri. Its estimated energy was “merely” 1033 ergs — the equivalent of a 100,000,000,000-megaton thermonuclear explosion. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Did you know that? -The average distance from the Earth to the Moon i
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Did you know that? - The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,400 km, and the combined diameters of all the planets is 380,008 km. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos What If the Sun Suddenly Disappeared?😱Imagine yourself waking up o
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What If the Sun Suddenly Disappeared?😱 Imagine yourself waking up one morning at the crack of 10 a.m., pulling back the bedroom curtains with your usual aplomb and finding yourself staring into cold, bleak darkness. But what if the above scenario you unwittingly found yourself in was caused by the sun (that fiery 4.6 billion-year-old yellow dwarf star that could bake 960,00 Earths inside its 15 million degree celsius core) ceasing to exist? on Earth, the consequences would be pretty dire. On the plus side, our planet retains heat rather well, so we wouldn’t freeze to death instantly. Also, as light from the Sun takes eight and a half minutes to reach us, we’d have a final few moments of glorious sunshine before our planet was bathed in darkness. Those on the night side wouldn’t notice much difference until, a few seconds after day-dwellers were thrust into darkness, the Moon suddenly disappeared as it no longer had the Sun’s light to reflect. The planets in the sky would follow suit, disappearing one by one as the wave of darkness reached them. Eventually, though, the lack of the Sun’s radiation would leave us pretty chilly. Just think about how much colder it is at night time rather than the day, but imagine that same temperature drop constantly occurring. Within days the world would be a hundred or so degrees below freezing, and within weeks it’d be just 50 or so degrees above absolute zero. The atmosphere itself would also freeze and fall to Earth, leaving us exposed to the harsh radiation travelling through space. Life as we know it would have to adapt to survive to our new frozen Earth, and it’s likely only microorganisms beneath the surface could survive thanks to heat from the core. For humans, we’d probably have to pool together and build a few nuclear fusion reactors in order to last a while. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos What does the big bang sound like?With a title like
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What does the big bang sound like? With a title like "Big Bang" you'd figure there'd be some crashing noise behind it. But the Big Bang that birthed our universe wasn't some ear-splitting, explosive sound. Instead, it was more akin to a robotic humming. And, it was inaudible to the human ear. We know this because a physicist at the University of Washington named John Cramer decided to re-create the sound of the Big Bang. He used data collected by a satellite sent to inspect the cosmic microwave background -- electromagnetic radiation remnants from the Big Bang. He fed the data into a computer program, which converted it into sound. But the sound was so low, so bass, it was inaudible to humans until Cramer boosted its frequency 100 septillion times! While the Big Bang likely wasn't an impressively loud sound, it was a long one. For the first 100,000 to 700,000 years after it was created, the universe was denser than the air on Earth. This meant sound waves could travel through it. As the universe cooled and expanded, the sound wavelengths stretched, which made sounds get lower. The humming from the Big Bang continued for those hundreds of thousands of years until the universe grew so large that the sound faded away completely. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos A light hour is an unit of astronomical distance which equals to the d
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A light hour is an unit of astronomical distance which equals to the distance which Light travels In one hour (It's1.1x10^8km). Смотреть полностью
Cosmos There are about 3,000 Planetary Nebulae in the Observable Milky Way.
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There are about 3,000 Planetary Nebulae in the Observable Milky Way. 📸 @nas ahubble created by ©️ Judy Schmith Смотреть полностью
Cosmos New simulation shines light on how massive Black Holes form !!😱An
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New simulation shines light on how massive Black Holes form !!😱 An enduring mystery of astrophysics is how supermassive black holes formed so quickly after the Big Bang. Now, a new simulation suggests a novel explanation for how the seeds of these huge black holes might have come to be. Reporting in Nature, an international team finds that massive black holes are the product of supermassive stars, maybe 10,000 times the mass of the Sun. Hypotheses about these stars make them rare and dependent on intense radiation from other stars, but that doesn’t appear to be the case in this new simulation. According to the new research, supermassive stars formed in dense starless regions and the radiation from other, more distant, stars was only a minor contributor. The stars quickly collapsed into massive black holes that grew by feeding on the abundant gas present in the dense region. Read this far? Give us a follow for more👉 @cosmos Смотреть полностью
Cosmos For the first time, scientists have identified a huge stellar eruption
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For the first time, scientists have identified a huge stellar eruption called a coronal mass ejection (CME) from a star other than our Sun! Traveling at over 1 million km/h, the ejected material has a mass of roughly 2 billion billion pounds, about 10,000 times greater than the most massive CMEs launched into interplanetary space by our Sun! Illustration Credit: NASA/GSFC/S. Wiessinger More: This artist's illustration depicts a coronal mass ejection, or CME, from a star. These events involve a large-scale expulsion of material, and have frequently been observed on the Sun. A new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected a CME from a different star, as reported in a new press release, providing a novel insight into these powerful phenomena. As the name implies these events occur in the corona, which is the outer atmosphere of a star. This "extrasolar" CME was seen from a star called HR 9024, which is located about 450 light years from Earth. This represents the first time that researchers have thoroughly identified and characterized a CME from a star other than the Sun. This event was marked by an intense flash of X-rays followed by the emission of a giant bubble of plasma, i.e., hot gas containing charged particles. The results confirm that CMEs are produced in magnetically active stars, and they also open the opportunity to systematically study such dramatic events in stars other than the Sun. The High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, or HETGS, aboard Chandra is the only instrument that allows measurements of the motions of coronal plasmas with speeds of just a few tens of thousands of miles per hour, like those observed in HR 9024. During the flare, the Chandra observations clearly detected very hot material (between 18 to 45 million degrees Fahrenheit) that first rises and then drops with speeds between 225,000 to 900,000 miles per hour. This is in excellent agreement with the expected behavior for material linked to the stellar flare. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Something's Hiding in Our Outer Solar System, But It Might Not Be Plan
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Something's Hiding in Our Outer Solar System, But It Might Not Be Planet Nine. Somewhere in the outer reaches of the Solar System, beyond the orbit of Neptune, something wonky is happening. A few objects are orbiting differently from everything else, and we don't know why. A popular hypothesis is that an unseen object called Planet Nine could be messing with these orbits; astronomers are avidly searching for this planet. But earlier this year physicists came up with an alternative explanation they think is more plausible. Instead of one big object, the orbital wobblies could be caused by the combined gravitational force of a number of smaller Kuiper Belt or trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). That's according to astrophysicists Antranik Sefilian of the University of Cambridge in the UK and Jihad Touma of the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. • What do you think of this? Смотреть полностью
Cosmos It's Real: Astronomers Just Discovered a Second Galaxy With No Dark Ma
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It's Real: Astronomers Just Discovered a Second Galaxy With No Dark Matter😯. Remember that time astronomers discovered a galaxy with no dark matter? Well, they're back. They've found a second one, and it actually bolsters the case for dark matter's existence. As the second galaxy astronomers have found without any dark matter, the new finding - named NGC 1052-DF4 (DF4 for short) - confirms that the first discovery, NGC 1052-DF2 (yep, DF2 for short), was not a mistake. Upon its discovery, DF2 was actually a huge surprise, and threw a pretty hefty spanner in our current ideas about galaxy formation and dynamics, because dark matter is a vital part of our understanding of galaxies. The strange stuff is currently undetectable even to our best instruments, but we know that there is something out there, some invisible mass, increasing the gravitational forces at play in galaxies. In the Milky Way, for instance, the velocity of the outer rim of the galaxy is much faster than it would be if it was only affected by detectable matter. In some galaxies, there seems to be more dark matter than normal matter; and, until the discovery of DF2, it had been thought that dark matter is not just a component, but a requirement for galaxies to form in the first place. So that initial paper attracted some criticism - and even some doubts among the team. "If there's one object, you always have a little voice in the back of your mind saying, 'but what if you're wrong?'," said astronomer Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University. "Even though we did all the checks we could think of, we were worried that nature had thrown us for a loop and had conspired to make something look really special whereas it was really something more mundane." Then, they found DF4. Like DF2, it's an ultra-diffuse galaxy - quite large, spread-out, and faint to observe. These objects are about the size of the Milky Way, but with 100 to 1,000 times fewer stars, so they can be pretty hard to see. Both galaxies have also been associated with the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052, about 63 million light-years away in the constellation of Cetus. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos There are estimated to be over 128 million pieces of debris smaller th
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There are estimated to be over 128 million pieces of debris smaller than 1 cm (0.39 in) as of January 2019. There are approximately 900,000 pieces from one to ten cm. The current count of large debris (defined as 10 cm across or larger) is 34,000. What do you think about this? Смотреть полностью
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