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Cosmos Did you know that? -The average distance from the Earth to the Moon i
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Did you know that? - The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,400 km, and the combined diameters of all the planets is 380,008 km. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos What If the Sun Suddenly Disappeared?😱Imagine yourself waking up o
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What If the Sun Suddenly Disappeared?😱 Imagine yourself waking up one morning at the crack of 10 a.m., pulling back the bedroom curtains with your usual aplomb and finding yourself staring into cold, bleak darkness. But what if the above scenario you unwittingly found yourself in was caused by the sun (that fiery 4.6 billion-year-old yellow dwarf star that could bake 960,00 Earths inside its 15 million degree celsius core) ceasing to exist? on Earth, the consequences would be pretty dire. On the plus side, our planet retains heat rather well, so we wouldn’t freeze to death instantly. Also, as light from the Sun takes eight and a half minutes to reach us, we’d have a final few moments of glorious sunshine before our planet was bathed in darkness. Those on the night side wouldn’t notice much difference until, a few seconds after day-dwellers were thrust into darkness, the Moon suddenly disappeared as it no longer had the Sun’s light to reflect. The planets in the sky would follow suit, disappearing one by one as the wave of darkness reached them. Eventually, though, the lack of the Sun’s radiation would leave us pretty chilly. Just think about how much colder it is at night time rather than the day, but imagine that same temperature drop constantly occurring. Within days the world would be a hundred or so degrees below freezing, and within weeks it’d be just 50 or so degrees above absolute zero. The atmosphere itself would also freeze and fall to Earth, leaving us exposed to the harsh radiation travelling through space. Life as we know it would have to adapt to survive to our new frozen Earth, and it’s likely only microorganisms beneath the surface could survive thanks to heat from the core. For humans, we’d probably have to pool together and build a few nuclear fusion reactors in order to last a while. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos What does the big bang sound like?With a title like
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What does the big bang sound like? With a title like "Big Bang" you'd figure there'd be some crashing noise behind it. But the Big Bang that birthed our universe wasn't some ear-splitting, explosive sound. Instead, it was more akin to a robotic humming. And, it was inaudible to the human ear. We know this because a physicist at the University of Washington named John Cramer decided to re-create the sound of the Big Bang. He used data collected by a satellite sent to inspect the cosmic microwave background -- electromagnetic radiation remnants from the Big Bang. He fed the data into a computer program, which converted it into sound. But the sound was so low, so bass, it was inaudible to humans until Cramer boosted its frequency 100 septillion times! While the Big Bang likely wasn't an impressively loud sound, it was a long one. For the first 100,000 to 700,000 years after it was created, the universe was denser than the air on Earth. This meant sound waves could travel through it. As the universe cooled and expanded, the sound wavelengths stretched, which made sounds get lower. The humming from the Big Bang continued for those hundreds of thousands of years until the universe grew so large that the sound faded away completely. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos A light hour is an unit of astronomical distance which equals to the d
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A light hour is an unit of astronomical distance which equals to the distance which Light travels In one hour (It's1.1x10^8km). Смотреть полностью
Cosmos There are about 3,000 Planetary Nebulae in the Observable Milky Way.
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There are about 3,000 Planetary Nebulae in the Observable Milky Way. 📸 @nas ahubble created by ©️ Judy Schmith Смотреть полностью
Cosmos New simulation shines light on how massive Black Holes form !!😱An
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New simulation shines light on how massive Black Holes form !!😱 An enduring mystery of astrophysics is how supermassive black holes formed so quickly after the Big Bang. Now, a new simulation suggests a novel explanation for how the seeds of these huge black holes might have come to be. Reporting in Nature, an international team finds that massive black holes are the product of supermassive stars, maybe 10,000 times the mass of the Sun. Hypotheses about these stars make them rare and dependent on intense radiation from other stars, but that doesn’t appear to be the case in this new simulation. According to the new research, supermassive stars formed in dense starless regions and the radiation from other, more distant, stars was only a minor contributor. The stars quickly collapsed into massive black holes that grew by feeding on the abundant gas present in the dense region. Read this far? Give us a follow for more👉 @cosmos Смотреть полностью
Cosmos For the first time, scientists have identified a huge stellar eruption
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For the first time, scientists have identified a huge stellar eruption called a coronal mass ejection (CME) from a star other than our Sun! Traveling at over 1 million km/h, the ejected material has a mass of roughly 2 billion billion pounds, about 10,000 times greater than the most massive CMEs launched into interplanetary space by our Sun! Illustration Credit: NASA/GSFC/S. Wiessinger More: This artist's illustration depicts a coronal mass ejection, or CME, from a star. These events involve a large-scale expulsion of material, and have frequently been observed on the Sun. A new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected a CME from a different star, as reported in a new press release, providing a novel insight into these powerful phenomena. As the name implies these events occur in the corona, which is the outer atmosphere of a star. This "extrasolar" CME was seen from a star called HR 9024, which is located about 450 light years from Earth. This represents the first time that researchers have thoroughly identified and characterized a CME from a star other than the Sun. This event was marked by an intense flash of X-rays followed by the emission of a giant bubble of plasma, i.e., hot gas containing charged particles. The results confirm that CMEs are produced in magnetically active stars, and they also open the opportunity to systematically study such dramatic events in stars other than the Sun. The High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, or HETGS, aboard Chandra is the only instrument that allows measurements of the motions of coronal plasmas with speeds of just a few tens of thousands of miles per hour, like those observed in HR 9024. During the flare, the Chandra observations clearly detected very hot material (between 18 to 45 million degrees Fahrenheit) that first rises and then drops with speeds between 225,000 to 900,000 miles per hour. This is in excellent agreement with the expected behavior for material linked to the stellar flare. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Something's Hiding in Our Outer Solar System, But It Might Not Be Plan
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Something's Hiding in Our Outer Solar System, But It Might Not Be Planet Nine. Somewhere in the outer reaches of the Solar System, beyond the orbit of Neptune, something wonky is happening. A few objects are orbiting differently from everything else, and we don't know why. A popular hypothesis is that an unseen object called Planet Nine could be messing with these orbits; astronomers are avidly searching for this planet. But earlier this year physicists came up with an alternative explanation they think is more plausible. Instead of one big object, the orbital wobblies could be caused by the combined gravitational force of a number of smaller Kuiper Belt or trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). That's according to astrophysicists Antranik Sefilian of the University of Cambridge in the UK and Jihad Touma of the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. • What do you think of this? Смотреть полностью
Cosmos It's Real: Astronomers Just Discovered a Second Galaxy With No Dark Ma
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It's Real: Astronomers Just Discovered a Second Galaxy With No Dark Matter😯. Remember that time astronomers discovered a galaxy with no dark matter? Well, they're back. They've found a second one, and it actually bolsters the case for dark matter's existence. As the second galaxy astronomers have found without any dark matter, the new finding - named NGC 1052-DF4 (DF4 for short) - confirms that the first discovery, NGC 1052-DF2 (yep, DF2 for short), was not a mistake. Upon its discovery, DF2 was actually a huge surprise, and threw a pretty hefty spanner in our current ideas about galaxy formation and dynamics, because dark matter is a vital part of our understanding of galaxies. The strange stuff is currently undetectable even to our best instruments, but we know that there is something out there, some invisible mass, increasing the gravitational forces at play in galaxies. In the Milky Way, for instance, the velocity of the outer rim of the galaxy is much faster than it would be if it was only affected by detectable matter. In some galaxies, there seems to be more dark matter than normal matter; and, until the discovery of DF2, it had been thought that dark matter is not just a component, but a requirement for galaxies to form in the first place. So that initial paper attracted some criticism - and even some doubts among the team. "If there's one object, you always have a little voice in the back of your mind saying, 'but what if you're wrong?'," said astronomer Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University. "Even though we did all the checks we could think of, we were worried that nature had thrown us for a loop and had conspired to make something look really special whereas it was really something more mundane." Then, they found DF4. Like DF2, it's an ultra-diffuse galaxy - quite large, spread-out, and faint to observe. These objects are about the size of the Milky Way, but with 100 to 1,000 times fewer stars, so they can be pretty hard to see. Both galaxies have also been associated with the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052, about 63 million light-years away in the constellation of Cetus. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos There are estimated to be over 128 million pieces of debris smaller th
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There are estimated to be over 128 million pieces of debris smaller than 1 cm (0.39 in) as of January 2019. There are approximately 900,000 pieces from one to ten cm. The current count of large debris (defined as 10 cm across or larger) is 34,000. What do you think about this? Смотреть полностью
Cosmos The Homunculus Nebula is a bipolar emission and reflection nebula surr
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The Homunculus Nebula is a bipolar emission and reflection nebula surrounding the massive star system Eta Carinae, about 7,500 light-years from Earth. The nebula is embedded within the much larger Carina Nebula, a large star-forming H region.⁣ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⁣ This image consists of ultraviolet and visible light images from the High Resolution Channel of Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys.⁣ Смотреть полностью
Cosmos The term Blue Moon has nothing to do with the color of the moon but in
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The term Blue Moon has nothing to do with the color of the moon but instead is a moniker for an additional moon in a particular time period. Usually, the Blue Moon is defined as the second full moon in a month, but this time, the moniker comes from an older definition. The vernal equinox (which represents the start of spring in the Northern Hemisphere) fell on March 20 this year. Less than 4 hours later, the first full moon of spring arrived. Rao cited an older definition of the Blue Moon from the now-defunct Maine Almanac, which said that if there are four full moons in a season instead of the usual three, the third is called a Blue Moon🌚 Смотреть полностью
Cosmos This is the Ring Nebula. This nebula is located 2,300 light years away
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This is the Ring Nebula. This nebula is located 2,300 light years away from us and the whole ring is about 1.3 light years wide. In the center of the nebula you’lll find a dying sun-like star which lights up the nebula. This particular nebula is classified as a bipolar nebulae; when the equatorial rings visibly extend the structure through its main axis of symmetry. 📸 @NASA Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Astronomers Think They Might Have Figured Out Jupiter's Mysterious Ori
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Astronomers Think They Might Have Figured Out Jupiter's Mysterious Origins😨🌌. Jupiter's anomalous size and location in our Solar System has been puzzling researchers for years, since it doesn't fit with our understanding of planetary formation. Now, astronomers think they've figured out how the gas giant ended up in its curious position. According to current models, giant planets form in the outer reaches of a system, migrate inwards, and end up very close to their star. Not Jupiter, though: a huge planet more than twice as massive as the rest of the Solar System planets combined, but orbiting pretty much in the thick of it. The new research appears to have demystified Jupiter's history. According to computer simulations, the gas giant formed around four times farther out than its current location, just inside Uranus' current orbit, and slowly spiralled its way inwards over the course of 700,000 years. "This is the first time we have proof that Jupiter was formed a long way from the Sun and then migrated to its current orbit," said astronomer Simona Pirani of Lund University in Sweden. The research was based on asteroids called Trojans. These share Jupiter's orbit; one group of Trojans orbits in front of Jupiter, and the other trails behind it, in curved regions centring on the planet's Lagrange points. But there's a conundrum. The group in front of Jupiter contains roughly 50 percent more asteroids than the trailing group. "The asymmetry has always been a mystery in the Solar System," said Lund University astronomer Anders Johansen. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos Our Closest Neighboring Exoplanets Could Be Habitable After All.Prox
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Our Closest Neighboring Exoplanets Could Be Habitable After All. Proxima b, TRAPPIST-1e, Ross-128b and LHS-1140b — the closest potentially habitable exoplanets — orbit a different kind of star than our Sun: M-type stars (red dwarfs). Such stars can flare frequently, bombarding the planets with biologically damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation, placing their atmospheres at risk of erosion and bringing the habitability of these worlds into question. A new study, however, finds that UV radiation should not be a limiting factor for the habitability of planets orbiting M-type stars and that the closest alien worlds remain intriguing targets for the search for life beyond our Solar System. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos What If a Black Hole Entered Our Solar System?😱•Let’s try our
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What If a Black Hole Entered Our Solar System?😱 • Let’s try our chances with a stellar black hole. This is a black hole that’s up to 20 times more massive than our Sun. If this kind of black hole made it to the outer reaches of the Solar System, it would cause a gravitational mess in the Oort cloud – the area of icy, comet-like objects. A stellar black hole would hurl more comets and asteroids into the inner Solar System, where they could strike the planets. Earth might take some hits, too. But that would be just a warm-up. As the black hole made its way through the Solar System, it would disrupt the orbits of all the planets in it. Likely, our space intruder would tangle the biggest planet in the system, Jupiter. The black hole would pull all the gas from the giant planet, turning it into a swirling hot disk. It would keep pulling until it consumed Jupiter entirely. What would happen to our own planet in this gravitational mess? Things wouldn’t be good for Earth. The black hole would start affecting us even from a distance of Pluto’s orbit. First, it would pull us out of the habitable zone, and we humans might not be ready to adapt to this change. We wouldn’t have much time to complain, since there would be worse things ahead. As the black hole approaches Earth, it would cause the cracking of the planet’s crust. We’d see extreme earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The ocean tides would be devastating, too. By the time the black hole passed Earth’s orbit, there would be nothing left of our planet but a sterile surface paved with magma. Maybe Earth would be ejected from the Solar System altogether. That would probably be for the best because when the black hole got close enough to the Sun, it would start drinking up the Sun’s flaming gas, and pulling our center of gravity into its insatiable stomach. If somehow, Earth stuck around for the afterparty, it would be torn to shreds and consumed by the black hole. Just one more way for Earth to come to an end. Luckily, black holes don’t seem to be very numerous in the Universe. • Tell us in comments, What would you do if a black hole's accretion disk suddenly appeared in the sky? Смотреть полностью
Cosmos The colors of the stars vary depending on the temperature of the surfa
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The colors of the stars vary depending on the temperature of the surface. Hot stars are blue or white, and the coldest stars are red. It may be cold because it has grown larger, or because it is older and entered the "red giant" phase, that is, when an old star expands and cools down a lot as its nucleus collapses. Смотреть полностью
Cosmos The Crescent Nebula (also known as NGC 6888, Caldwell 27, Sharple
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The Crescent Nebula (also known as NGC 6888, Caldwell 27, Sharpless 105) is an emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus, about 5000 light-years away from Earth. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1792. It is formed by the fast stellar wind from the Wolf-Rayet star WR 136 (HD 192163) colliding with and energizing the slower moving wind ejected by the star when it became a red giant around 250,000 to 400,000 years ago. The result of the collision is a shell and two shock waves, one moving outward and one moving inward. The inward moving shock wave heats the stellar wind to X-ray-emitting temperatures. _______ What do you think of this nebula🔭💭 Смотреть полностью
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